Pengaruh Pengelolaan Air dan Pupuk terhadap Produktivitas Padi Sawah dan Air Irigasi pada Tanah Salin Bukaan Baru di Kabupaten Malaka, Nusa Tenggara Timur

I Gusti Putu Wigena, Diah Setyorini, Andriati Andriati, Muhammad Anang Firmansyah

Abstract


Newly opened of lowland rice field is one source that has important role to national rice production. For this reason, a field research to study effects of water management, anorganic, organic fertilizers,and biofertilizer tolowland rice productivity of newly opened salin soil on Kleseleon Village, Weliman Sub Districts, Malaka Regency, East Nusa Tenggara Province has been done on 2015. The research tested three factors, namely two levels ponding water layer: 0.5 and 3.0 cm as the first factor; fertilizer kind (NPK, manure, biofertilizer) as the second factor; and dosage of anorganic NPK fertilizer (0.5 NPK recommendations, 0.75 NPK recommendations, 1.0 NPK recommendation) as the third factor. 10 treatments, combination of the three factors were tested, arranged in Randomized Block Design with 3 replications. The results showed that the research site can be grouped into salin soil with chemical properties of pH 8.9, electrical conductivity 5.01 dSm-1, and excheangable sodium percentage 15%. Submergence of 0.5 cm and 3.0 cm decrease soil pH at 1-3 early weeks’ period, increase at the following 4-5 weeks, and decrease to achieve pH value on the next week’s period. Incontrast, submergence of 0.5 cm and 3.0 cm increase soil Eh at 1-3 early weeks period, decrease at the following 4-5 weeks, and increase to achieve Eh value on the next weeks period. Intermittent irrigation showed pH and Eh value against to pH and Eh value of submergence irrigation. The highest plant height, tiller number, and lowland rice productivity of Ciherang variety was provided on NPK recommendation, consisted of 300 kg Urea ha-1, 50 kg SP-36 ha-1, and 75 kg KCl ha-1 + 2.0 ton rice straw ha-1 with each value were 87.8 cm, 28.83 steam hill-1, and 5.07 ton rice milling dry ha-1. Application of biofertilizer as source of Agrimeth of 500 gram 40 kg-1 seed could not increase plant heught, tiller number, and lowland rice productivity. The highest water productivity was provided by NPK recommendation + Intermittent1-1 around 0.898 gram rice milling dry litre-1, while the lowest water productivity was obtained on NPK recommendation + 2.0 ton rice straw ha-1 + 500 gram Agrimeth 40 kg-1 seed around 0.359 gram litre-1.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Agus F. 2007. Pendahuluan. Di dalam Agus F, Wahyunto, dan Santoso D (eds.). Tanah Sawah bukaan baru. Balai Besar Penelitian & Pengembangan Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian (BBSDLP), Bogor. Hal: 1-4.

Anbumozhi VE, Yamaji, Tabuchi T. 1998. Rice crop growth and yield as influenced by changes in ponding water depth, water regime and fertigation level. Agricultural Water Management 37: 241-253.

Bhuiyan SI. 1992. Water management in relation to crop production: case study on rice. Outlook Agriculture 21: 293-299.

Bhuiyan SI, Sattar MA, Tabbal DF. 1994. Wet seeded rice: water use efficiency, productivity and constraints to wider adoption. Paper presented at the International Workshop on constrains, opportunities, and innovations for wet seeded rice. Bangkok, May 31 – June 3, 1994, 19 pp.

Bouman BAM, Peng S, Castaneda AR, Visperas RM. 2005. Yield and water use of irrigated tropical aerobic rice systems. Agricultural Water Management 74: 87-105.

Bouman. BAM, Tuong TP. 2001. Field water management to save water and increase its productivity in irrigated lowland rice. Agricultural Water Management 49: 11-30.

Cabangon RJ, Tuong TP, Abdullah NB. 2002. Comparing water input and water productivity of transplanted and direct-seeded rice production systems. Agricultural Water Management 57: 11-31.

De Datta SK. 1981. Principles and practices of rice production. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Banos, Philippines.

Direktorat Jenderal Prasarana dan Sarana Pertanian (Ditjen PSP). 2013. Perluasan areal sawah baru menjadi salah satu solusi untuk meningkatkan volume produksi beras dalam negeri. Ditjen PSP, Jakarta.

Direktorat Jenderal Tanaman Pangan (Ditjen TP). 2016. Luas panen dan produksi padi sawah menurut provinsi 2011-2015. Ditjen TP, Jakarta.

Djukri. 2009. Cekaman salinitas terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman. Di dalam: Prosiding Seminar Nasional Penelitian, Pendidikan dan Penerapan MIPA. FMIPA Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta. Hal.49-55.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2005. Dua puluh hal untuk diketahui tentang dampak air laut pada lahan pertanian di provinsi Nangroe Aceh Darusalam. http://www.fao.org/ag/tsunami/docs/20_think_on_salinity_bahasa.pdf. Diakses 12 Pebruari 2014.

Hardjowigeno S. 2007. Ilmu tanah. Akademika Pressindo, Jakarta.

International Water Management Institute (IWMI). 2004. Water Facts. IWMI Brochure.

Keerseblick NC, Soeprapto S. 1985. Physical measurement in lowland soils techniques and standardization. In: Soil Physic and Rice. IRRI, Los Banos, Philippines.

Kyuma K. 2004. Fundamental chemical reaction in submerged paddy soils. In: Paddy soil science. Kyoto University Press, Kyoto. p: 60-81.

Kyuma K. 2004. Problem paddy soil. In: Paddy soil science. Kyoto University Press, Kyoto. p: 222-254.

Maharani E. 2015. Tingkat konsumsi beras secara nasional. www.republika. Diakses 24 Januari 2017.

Muharam, Saefudin. 2016. Pengaruh berbagai pembenah tanah terhadap pertumbuhan dan populasi tanaman padi sawah varietas dendang di tanah sawah salin bukaan baru. Jurnal Agrotek Indonesia 1(2): 141-150.

Ponnamperuma FN. 1978. Electrochemical changes in submerged soil and the growth of rice. Advance in Agronomy 24: 48-56.

Prasetyo BH. 2007. Genesis tanah sawah bukaan baru. Di dalam Agus F, Wahyunto, dan Santoso D (eds.). Tanah Sawah bukaan baru. Balai Besar Penelitian & Pengembangan Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian (BBSDLP), Bogor. Hal: 25-51.

Ritung S, Suharta N. 2010. Sebaran dan potensi pengembangan lahan sawah bukaan baru. Di dalam Agus F, Wahyunto, dan Santoso D (eds.). Tanah Sawah bukaan baru. Edisi kedua. Balai Besar Penelitian & Pengembangan Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian (BBSDLP), Bogor. Hal: 5-25.

Samosir. 2010. Survey dan pemetaan tingkat salinitas lahan. Samosir. [Skripsi]. Faperta USU, Medan.

Singh B, Singh VK. 2017. Fertilizer management in rice. In: Chauhan BS, Jabran K, Mahajan G. (Eds.). Rice production worldwide. Springer, Dordrecth. p: 217-253.

Subarja VO. 2016. Pengelolaan limbah pertanian dan sampah pasar untuk perbaikan sifat tanah dan peningkatan produksi padi dengan metode SRI di lahan salin karawang. [Tesis]. SPS IPB, Bogor.

Sukristiyonubowo, Nugroho K, Ritung S. 2012. Rice growth and water productivity of newly openend wetlands in Indonesia. Journal of Agiculture Science and Soil Science 2(8): 328 – 332.

Sulistiyono E, Hayati T. 2013. Penentuan tinggi irigasi genangan yang tidak menurunkan produksi padi sawah. Jurnal Agrovigor 6(2): 87-91.

Sys C. 1985. Evaluation of the physical environment for rice cultivation. In: Soil physics and rice. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Banos, Philippines. p: 31-34.

Taball DF, Bouman BAM, Bhuiyan SI, Sibayan EB, Sattar MA. 2002. On-farm strategies for reducing water input in irrigated rice; case study in the Philippines. Agricultural Water Management. 56: 93-112.

Tadano T, Yoshida S. 1978. Chemical changes in submerged soils and their effects on rice growth. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Banos, Philippines.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.